But when he recognized that the practice was just for sharing the efforts among his colleagues, he became willing to do so. The second step is to make the goal clear and show the ways to achieve the goal. Such a goal should be visible and recognizable. Obviously, the aim of knowledge management in schools is to share knowledge and create new knowledge among teachers.
A participant in the research stated that teachers of his school listened to their principal to enhance the knowledge management practices in school. But most of them did not know how to do it actually and they just shared their teaching materials in hardcopy format as usual. As a result, no obvious improvement could be observed. Finally, some experienced teachers demonstrated how to use IT facilities to share teaching and learning materials online.
Then, other teachers could follow to improve the knowledge management practices. The third step is to manage culture when teachers, the principal and the school may have different sets of values. These values sometimes may be contrary to each other. The best way to solve this problem is to develop mutual values that will be comfortable to everyone.
To get mutual values, all the members in an organization should understand the value of each other.
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There must be an agreement between what members value and what the organization value Boylan, For example, a teacher in the interview complained that some knowledge management practices created lots of troubles to her. She needed to upload files to the Intranet and created indexes for retrieving. She just wanted to spend her time for teaching directly and thought this extra task did not help too much.
But after a year, she gradually discovered that the established database by colleagues were really helpful to teaching and she changed her mind and accepted knowledge management practices. This example shows that there is mutual value between this teacher and the school.
This is to enhance teaching and increase effectiveness of the school. But this teacher could not notice it initially. Thus, the principal should explain to teachers what the mutual values are and create a vision and direction that can be followed by them. One more example, in an interview a participant mentioned that in his school, the principal required each teacher to write a report after attending a seminar and workshop. This practice discouraged teachers to attend such a kind of meeting. After the principal listened to the comments from teachers, the report was simplified to a form on which teachers only need to fill in a small number of items to express their feedbacks.
This practice can encourage the participation of teachers. Traditionally school cultures are likely to be professional cultures isolated from each other.
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Teachers are working individually on their own in the context of a school. This culture is not responsive to change and the school becomes a loosely-coupled organization. In reality teachers are seldom working alone and their collaboration occurs within groups. For example, teachers responsible for the same subject may form a group. But there may be little collaboration between different groups Kanter, These are segmented cultures.
Teachers of one group may not be familiar with those of other groups. When teachers are isolated, the school cannot manage problems affecting the entire school. Collaborative culture is important for implementing knowledge management successfully.
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Such a culture is adaptive to meet the challenges from time to time. The management of a school can achieve a collaborative culture by sharing values and consensus regarding the way knowledge management practices are performed and creating opportunities for collaboration e. The management is encouraged to share power and responsibility with teachers and foster staff development. This can establish a clear illustration of what teachers are supposed to behave and follow in the collaborative culture. The school itself represents structural knowledge.
There are mechanisms and structures that support teachers to achieve optimum teaching performance. A teacher may have a lot of experience and knowledge but if the school does not have suitable system and procedure for sharing, the overall knowledge of the school cannot be fully utilized.
The structure of a school includes its routine activities, procedure and information technology infrastructure. If these factors can be managed effectively, the embedded knowledge can be obtained from these routines and procedure. The structure actually links the personnel resource of a school together into the routines and procedures to create values for the school.
A learning organization is, in fact, a result of effective knowledge management. Teachers can communicate within the context of the structure and the school can benefit from their capabilities that maximize the overall performance of the school. A learning organization is able to leverage human resource s for efficient knowledge sharing and reduce lead times for information and knowledge transmission. The major aim of knowledge management is to share knowledge with other and create new knowledge in such a process.source url
Knowledge strategies for enhancing school learning capacity
This concept is consistent with learning organization where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free and where people are continually learning how to learn together Senge et al. Garvin also provided a similar definition of learning organization that can create, acquire and transfer knowledge and modify its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights.
Knowledge management is relatively new in the area of education in Hong Kong. Teachers have to learn these new practices in their teaching and administrative work. Transformation can provide a way of taking a new look at what a school can do and how to re-organize to meet the challenges in a new way Davis, It stresses on the workflow of the process and leads to a new perspective for exploring the effectiveness of the school.
Senge et al. The first discipline is systems thinking that is a conceptual framework helping people to see how the overall change is implemented. The aim of knowledge management and how it affects the school should be conveyed to teachers. The second discipline is personal mastery that is to clarify and deepen individual personal vision and create commitment to the truth. Teachers with different personal mastery should be encouraged to expand their abilities and contribute to the organizational learning.
The third discipline is mental models that affect how people comprehend the world and how they respond. The mental model provides teachers a tool to share a new knowledge management practices and communicate with colleagues about the new common values and beliefs.
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The fourth discipline is shared vision that is the common identify and sense of density. Shared vision is the heart of a learning organization. The fifth discipline is team learning through which the intelligence of the team exceeds that of the individuals in the team. Learning organization structure should be consistent with the knowledge management practices in schools.
Besides social interaction among teachers, it is necessary to facilitate resources management e. For example, schools need to consider what kinds of IT resources important to develop both physical and online environments for sharing and whether teachers are able to use them effectively. Individual and repeated interactions between teachers create bonds Starbuck, Social interaction among teachers can facilitate coordination and cooperation. The trust, mutual understanding and shared values should be developed to bind the teachers and make cooperative action achievable Cohen and Prusak, Trust and friendship are important to develop network ties.
Teachers may utilize their networks to access knowledge and information from each other in different parts of a school. A shared focus should be established and teachers are aware of what and why they are performing knowledge management practice. For this reason any educational knowledge management system should contain a social dimension. The foundation of the knowledge management framework of Nonaka et al.
Knowledge Management in Education | Enhancing Learning & Education | Taylor & Francis Group
The field of education is using sophisticated systems for knowledge management. But their success is limited because of their emphasis on the information or the technology, instead of human and cultural processes that convert the data into knowledge Woodell, Social aspects are an important constituent of educational philosophy and instruction. Dewey asserted that the development of knowledge cannot be isolated from emotions and that the performance of an individual is tied to subjective feelings about the action.
People, technology and information define the context of the educational environment. Knowledge capital combines with the organizational and personnel contributions to the school. One challenge in maintaining knowledge management practices is training and coaching on collaboration Allee, It is uncommon for schools to train and coach people to participate in significant dialogue or critically address the challenges of collaborative decision making.
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- Knowledge Management Education Enhancing Learning by Gary Jones Edward Sallis?
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Most team works focus on cooperation, not collaboration. People should learn how to cooperate to get the work done that is still fundamentally an individual performance focus.
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