In contrast, the bars in the graph that indicate charging or discharging show how charging and discharging were performed while the VPP program was running. These show that charging took place overnight, except during the power system's peak demand hours from 6 to 9 PM , whereas discharging occurred during those peak hours. These two trial programs demonstrated that the adjustment capacity provided by DR and VPPs can be utilized as a resource for grid operation. One of these trials was a VPP program that aggregated the load adjustment capabilities of heat pumps installed in customer homes and traded the combined load adjustment capability on the electricity trading market or with electricity industry participants such as electricity retailers and grid operators.
Seven different use cases are available for utilizing the adjustment capabilities see Figure 9. The trial achieved the initial target for the amount of negawatts made available and confirmed that DR satisfies the regulations when trading with aggregators.
Service use cases. A second trial involved a telecare service in the form of a data utilization program in which data acquired from the VPP business was utilized for the purposes of differentiation, customer acquisition, and revenue improvement. The trial demonstrated that improvements in the efficiency of telecare service operations and the benefits of data utilization services for enhancing business viability could be achieved by adopting IT. This included using electric power and temperature as well as data from door, motion-detection, and other special-purpose sensors to determine the situation in the home; the use of automated voice telephony to perform checks; and functions for chatting with care managers and collating care records.
These two programs demonstrated the viability of providing services using VPPs to electricity utilities in a liberalized electricity market. The electricity business is undergoing a staged liberalization as it approaches the third stage of Japan's electricity market reforms due to be introduced around Developments in included the launch of a negawatt market, grid operators beginning to take bids for adjustment capacity, and encouragement for the introduction of VPPs that included the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry offering funding for demonstration projects involving VPP implementation.
With the competition unleashed by liberalization having also led to rising demand for customer acquisition solutions, Hitachi intends to draw on operational know-how and the results of trials in overseas countries where electricity market liberalization is more advanced to take on the needs and challenges of the electricity business with VPP and data utilization solutions that are likely to be used by grid operators, retailers, and aggregators.
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Cybersecurity for Distributed Energy Resources and SCADA Systems
Collect dam information and use the status of the dam and other equipment as a basis for remote monitoring from the dam control room and integrated remote control of gates. Added capability to carry out training independently on the Mimikawa and Gokase river systems. This provides the ability to perform simulation testing of events to improve the skills of operations staff. A training evaluation function has been added that also contributes to raising the skills of operations staff by identifying problems with the actions of training participants.
The system provides integrated security management at the dam control room by acquiring industrial television ITV video from the dams, information on site access, and security information.
The main features of the system are as follows. For the TSC function, a technique was developed and implemented in the ISC-P to respond to events triggered by changes in the state of the grid that simultaneously oscillate more than one power plant by selecting the optimal mix of equipment to control based on the energy associated with generator acceleration and deceleration. For the SSC function, operational efficiency was enhanced by automating the switching operations that were previously required when the grid configuration changed.
Reduction in lifecycle costs through the use of hardware developed in-house that provides high reliability and long-term maintainability. Also reduced space and power consumption through the use of high-performance servers and virtualization. The system configuration and functions are designed for regional integration with the control systems of adjacent branches for the wide service areas, providing operational continuity through mutual backup in the event of a disaster or other incident. Rapid sharing of online grid information with maintenance staff and lower operator workloads achieved by a function for providing information in real time to thin client terminals connected to the support network.
A grid monitoring station provides a high level of visibility and flexibility through use of inch liquid crystal display LCD screens screen multi-configuration.
Expert panel: Microgrids
This Reference is not available in your current subscription. Notify your administrator of your interest. Integration of Distributed Energy Resources in Power Systems - Implementation, Operation, and Control Details This book covers the operation of power transmission and distribution systems and their growing difficulty as the share of renewable energy sources in the world's energy mix grows and the proliferation trend of small scale power generation becomes a reality. The book gives students at the graduate level, as well as researchers and power engineering professionals, an understanding of the key issues necessary for the development of such strategies.
It explores the most relevant topics, with a special focus on transmission and distribution areas. Subjects such as voltage control, AC and DC microgrids, and power electronics are explored in detail for all sources, while not neglecting the specific challenges posed by the most used variable renewable energy sources. Show less. View More.
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Back to Table of Contents. Richard J. Open Share Save. Click here to Expand all. Click here to Collapse all. View Section, Front Matter. View Section, Table of Contents. View Section, 1. Community Microgrids can serve up to a few thousands of customers and support the penetration of local energy electricity, heating, and cooling. The community microgrid may also have a centralized or several distributed energy storages.
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Such microgrids can be in the form of an ac and dc microgrid coupled together through a bi-directional power electronic converter. These microgrids never connect to the Macrogrid and instead operate in an island mode at all times because of economic issues or geographical position. Typically, an "off-grid" microgrid is built in areas that are far distant from any transmission and distribution infrastructure and, therefore, have no connection to the utility grid.
Large remote areas may be supplied by several independent microgrids, each with a different owner operator. Although such microgrids are traditionally designed to be energy self-sufficient, intermittent renewable sources and their unexpected and sharp variations can cause unexpected power shortfall or excessive generation in those microgrids. This will immediately cause unacceptable voltage or frequency deviation in the microgrids. To remedy such situations, it is possible to interconnect such microgrids provisionally to a suitable neighboring microgrid to exchange power and improve the voltage and frequency deviations.
The determination of a need to interconnect neighboring microgrids and finding the suitable microgrid to couple with can be achieved through optimization  or decision making  approaches. These microgrids are being actively deployed with focus on both physical and cyber security for military facilities in order to assure reliable power without relying on the Macrogrid.
These types of microgrids are maturing quickly in North America and Asia Pacific; however, the lack of well —known standards for these types of microgrids limits them globally. Main reasons for the installation of an industrial microgrid are power supply security and its reliability. There are many manufacturing processes in which an interruption of the power supply may cause high revenue losses and long start-up time. A microgrid presents various types of generation sources that feed electricity, heating, and cooling to user.
These sources are divided into two major groups — thermal energy sources e. In a microgrid, consumption simply refers to elements that consume electricity, heat, and cooling which range from single devices to lighting, heating system of buildings, commercial centers, etc. In the case of controllable loads , the electricity consumption can be modified in demand of the network. In microgrid, energy storage is able to perform multiple functions, such as ensuring power quality, including frequency and voltage regulation, smoothing the output of renewable energy sources, providing backup power for the system and playing crucial role in cost optimization.
It includes all of chemical, electrical, pressure, gravitational, flywheel, and heat storage technologies. When multiple energy storages with various capacities are available in a microgrid, it is preferred to coordinate their charging and discharging such that a smaller energy storage does not discharge faster than those with larger capacities. Likewise, it is preferred a smaller one does not get fully charged before those with larger capacities. This can be achieved under a coordinated control of energy storages based on their state of charge.
It is the point in the electric circuit where a microgrid is connected to a main grid. A microgrid is capable of operating in grid-connected and stand-alone modes and of handling the transition between the two. In the grid-connected mode, ancillary services can be provided by trading activity between the microgrid and the main grid.
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Other possible revenue streams exist. Microgrids offer an option to balancing the need to reduce carbon emissions while continuing to provide reliable electric energy in periods of time that renewable sources of power are not available.
Microgrids also offer the security of being hardened from severe weather and natural disasters by not having large assets and miles of above-ground wires and other electric infrastructure that needs to be maintained or repaired following these events. A microgrid may transition between these two modes because of scheduled maintenance, degraded power quality or a shortage in the host grid, faults in the local grid, or for economical reasons. Microgrids, and integration of DER units in general, introduce a number of operational challenges that need to be addressed in the design of control and protection systems in order to ensure that the present levels of reliability are not significantly affected and the potential benefits of Distributed Generation DG units are fully harnessed.
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