Insect Pest Management: Field and Protected Crops

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The Practice of IPM – “The PAMS Approach”

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Integrated Pest Management

Midega Jimmy O. In organic agriculture, the emphasis is laid on the quality of human intervention over nature, which is non-aggressive, compared to conventional agriculture. After , OA can be considered a period of consolidation for standards and the regulations, which aimed and still aims to facilitate international trade with organic products in order to reduce legislative gaps which exist among the various certification types, such as the EC Regulations [ 3 , 4 ], the USA NOP , Australia AS , Japan JAS , and Switzerland Bio Swiss.

Thus, the EC Regulation of organic agriculture [ 3 ] has been improved in the least years with new regulations, targeting aquaculture and organic wine production. The number of the certification bodies, in , was at , increasing from when there were Organic farming biological, ecological is currently one of the most dynamic forms of agriculture. This affirmation is mainly supported by the expansion of agricultural areas, currently occupying There are also cases of countries, such as Argentina, Spain, and USA, in which the area increased in compared to with over , ha.

Around the world, at the end of , the organically certified area covered more than 78 million ha. From these data, it appears that the organically administered surface has had a growth rate of over Europe and Oceania recorded the fastest land expansion rhythm in , compared to , which shows that the expansion of the areas is supported by an intensive marketing of organic products [ 5 ].

Compared to , the organically certified area in the world increased by over 5. Of course, in some countries, the conversion areas or the cultivated ones are decreasing, especially due to legislation and government support, which differ from country to country UK.

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Global sales of organic food and drinks reached more 72 billion dollars at the end of Compared to , this sector revenue increased almost five times. Europe and North America made a big contribution to cover these specific sectors. Asia, Latin America, and Africa have become really important producers of organic crops for this market. In , the countries with the largest organic markets were the USA Organic farming OF is a system-based agricultural production system working with rather than against natural systems [ 2 ].

The major differences that have been made in terms of technology between organic and conventional cultivation of plants are as follows: soil fertility, weeds, pathogens, and pest control.

Centre for Integrated Pest Management | Harper Adams University

Pest control in organic agriculture can be obtained through prevention and curative measure but must be focused on the preventive infestation of pests [ 2 ]. Measures to prevent infestation by pests refers to: phytosanitary quarantine special for seed and planting materials used for establishing crops ; monitoring pest infestation used in general agro-expert stations or traps ; choice of cultivars according to the criterion of resistance and ecological plasticity; seed conditioning; destruction of problematic weeds; solarization; and hygienic conditions.

The fundamental principle of controlling pests in organic systems OS should consider the mechanism of adjusting its biocenosis total community of organisms from o biotope , through the correlation and interdependence between the cultivated species, pathogens, weeds, pests, technology, and the environment. Protecting plants from pests and diseases probably has the greatest impact on achieving an organic vegetable crop, due to the very large spectrum of pathogens and pests from these crops.

The first major attempt to reduce chemical treatments took place even before , when the concept of integrated control was promoted [ 6 , 7 ]. According to this concept, all technical methods are allowed to maintain the populations of pests and pathogens under a certain degree of impairment, which does not affect the yields from an economic point of view.

This concept is approved by the International Organization for Biological Control IOBC , but first of all natural factors must be used, together with other methods appropriate for the economic, ecological, and toxicological requirements [ 8 ]. In organic farming, the principles of the integrated pest control are perfectly applicable in substantializing the mechanisms for fighting pests, diseases, but most chemical means are forbidden; instead, new unconventional methods have been used, like some biodynamic preparations.

The strong attack of some pests may be favored by some technical mistakes, in general, or mistakes in the environmental context such as the following: improper choice of the place of culture; using seeds or plants that are weakly developed; mistakes in crop association; practicing monocultures without using proper crop rotation; incorrectly executed soil tillage; unilateral or excessive fertilization, without organic fertilizers; insufficient fertilization; extreme weather conditions; and improper choice of the sowing period [ 1 , 9 ].

The quarantine is a complex of preventive measures taken to stop the penetration of diseases, pests, or weeds from other countries and to limit their spread. Overall, export products between countries shall be binding accompanied by a phytosanitary document certifying that the seeds or agricultural materials for setting up the crop seeds, cuttings, tubers, bulbs, seedlings, shrubs, or trees are free from pest quarantine.

There are numerous species mites, insects , generally in polyphagus that are considered extremely dangerous and huge efforts have been made to limit their expansion, for example: Leptinotarsa decemlineata Colorado beetle , Tetranychus urticae red spider mite , Myzus persicae green peach aphid , Bemisia tabaci silverleaf whitefly , Trialeurodes vaporariorum greenhouse whitefly , Liriomyza trifolii leaf miner flies , Tuta absoluta tomato leaf miner , Spodoptera litura Oriental leaf worm moth , Frankliniella intonsa red red thrips , Diabrotica virgifera virgifera western corn rootworm , or others [ 10 — 12 ].

Synthetic pesticides are not permitted in organic farming which serves to preserve and enhance biodiversity within the system. Natural enemies of pest species are therefore able to thrive, exerting control on pest populations. Conservation and improvement of natural features of the landscape, such as hedgerows and ponds and the construction of beetle banks and sown flower strips, have also enabled communities of predators to flourish. The pests are very adaptive to the changes of production systems, especially from the transfer from conventional to organic farms in conversion.

In OA, pest problems are influenced by three major components of farming systems, such as: crop species and cultivar, agro-ecosystem structure, and technology production Figures 1 and 2. Researchers developed flowering strips that are tailored to requirements of the specific complex of natural enemies within a cropping system. So, any experiments identified selective plant species that would improve the longevity and parasitization rate of the parasitoid wasps Microplitis mediator , Diadegma fenestrale, and D. Comparing the effects of floral and extrafloral nectar of different plants, beneficial effects of Fagopyrum esculentum floral nectar , Centaurea cyanus floral and extrafloral nectar , and non-flowering Vicia sativa extrafloral nectar on parasitoids were found.

Extensive plant screening is essential to achieve plant selectivity and to maximize biological control.

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The cultivar is perhaps the most important factor that productivity and quality depend on. Because of its biological and technological potential, it will be expressed in terms of appropriate measures [ 15 ]. In order to choose the most suitable cultivar for OA, the farmer should take into account main criteria: consumer preferences regarding appearance, taste [ 2 ], etc. There are very different requirements from the growers regarding variety characteristics, depending on the size of the surfaces and the destination of the products.

Thus, for small gardens, created by amateurs for their own consumption, large fruit species can be cultivated, as they are more sensitive to transport and storage. OA can be used as varieties, hybrids, local populations, and clones [ 3 , 4 ], but not accepted genetically modified organisms. Choosing varieties and hybrids with resistance to pathogens and pests is necessary both for protected crops and for early field crops, because the investment is often large, so risks and loss must be eliminated [ 18 — 20 ].

For many crops tomatoes, cucumbers, eggplants, bushes, or trees grafted method may be used that causes plant vigor and thus resistance to nematode Figure 3. Fado hybrid grafted on the Rezistar rootstock for an attack on nematodes photograph by Stoleru Vasile. In Table 1 are presented any cultivars with resistance or tolerance to the attack of different pests, especially for nematode control, in temperate climate conditions.

Recent research on the outside cabbage crop in the temperate climate highlighted, Timpurie de Vidra cultivar cv of early cabbage is most resistant to the cabbage fly 8. The reaction of cultivars resistant to pests and the nematode default may be determined by its presence in the plant silica [ 22 ], iron [ 23 ] genes that provide resistance [ 18 , 24 , 25 ], or protein presence in bean or cowpea [ 23 , 26 , 27 ].

Numerous pests, especially from the coleopteran order, can be found between the seeds or inside them during sowing, as they feed within their endosperm, endangering seed germination or weakening the newly sprouted plant [ 8 ].

Insect Pest Management: Field and Protected Crops Insect Pest Management: Field and Protected Crops
Insect Pest Management: Field and Protected Crops Insect Pest Management: Field and Protected Crops
Insect Pest Management: Field and Protected Crops Insect Pest Management: Field and Protected Crops
Insect Pest Management: Field and Protected Crops Insect Pest Management: Field and Protected Crops
Insect Pest Management: Field and Protected Crops Insect Pest Management: Field and Protected Crops
Insect Pest Management: Field and Protected Crops Insect Pest Management: Field and Protected Crops
Insect Pest Management: Field and Protected Crops Insect Pest Management: Field and Protected Crops

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